1) They can make you sound ignorant.
2) You can come off as either lazy or aloof.
3) You appear self-important.
Imagine you are an instructional designer (ID) preparing to sit down to an initial needs analysis meeting with a project manager from a department within your own company. Although you’ve worked around one another for nine months, you’ve never directly worked on a project together.Good luck.
The PM’s overall goal: Departmental return on investment (ROI). Whatever that means.
The PM’s objective for this encounter: Get you to build a website with as many features as possible for the lowest cost. (And maybe meet the department’s objective for wanting the website. But we won’t know because evaluation isn’t a department priority.)
Your overall/idealistic goal (as an instructional designer, ID): Change people’s lives. Empower, strengthen, and meet the needs of learners. Make them better, smarter, and more effective at what they do, ultimately adding value to the company.
Your objective for this interaction: Be a “business partner” by utilizing your expertise to understand and meet the client’s goals, and then offer appropriate solutions (training or otherwise) at various price points by first identifying the client’s objectives, audience, budget, and schedule.
PM: *Silently walks into the reserved conference room, praying through clenched but grinning teeth that this interaction will go as smoothly for him as possible.* “Hi. We want you to build us a website to market our new product, please.”
ID: *You feign excitement while repressing instant frustration; clients always seem to ask for specific deliverables (the horse) before they know what they really want their products to do (the cart).* “A website! Sounds exciting! I’ve built some eye-popping websites for customers in the past in order to—”
PM: *Interrupting* “Yes! That exactly what we want! Just like that other one you did!” *Things are going better than expected. Now to settle on the cost…*
ID: *This is going to take longer than expected. I need to verify that a website is the right tool for the job.* “Great! So tell me a little bit more. After people see your website, what do you want to have happen? What’s the ideal outcome?”
PM: “We want them all to convert from using the old department tool to this new tool we just built for them.”
ID: “Okay!” *Client request: a systemic change in attitude/value/belief, moving users to adoption of new tool. Potential Solutions: behavior modeling, introduce cognitive dissonance, role playing/simulation, storytelling, celebrity/expert endorsement, appealing to intellect, subtle emotional manipulation techniques, etc. Additional instruction likely.* “Tell me more about your audience. Who’s going to be using your site? Will the same people who adopt your tool be the ones using it?”
PM: “Yes. But the product is for office use only.” *Why are we still having this conversation?*
ID: *I’m not convinced a website is the best solution for changing the behavioral component of affect.* “I can see there’s a lot of departmental excitement about a website; it’s obviously some serious thought has gone into this. But the way I’m understanding so far, a website wouldn’t be my recommendation. So help me understand. How did you come to decide that a website will help convince your people to switch products?”
PM: *I’m not supposed to be the one selling you. You’re supposed to be selling me! Or at least be a “yes-man.”* “My higher ups and I love the of blasting the employees with an in-your-face message they can’t ignore. Something like, ‘we have an awesome new product! Click this link to download and check it out!’ Basically, this can’t be a training. Our people hate trainings. Better to let them discover it on their own. That’s what’s getting traction right now.”
ID: *How can I communicate my true misgivings about the direction of this project without coming off as insensitive to the client’s feelings.* “I hear what you’re saying! You want an accessible, flashy announcement that links employees to the product, right?”
PM: “You got it! But we also want the website to have testimonials, and training pages, and leader boards too; just like your other website. And since it’s still Q1, budget is unfortunately an issue. Everything is already earmarked.” *I’m just going to say it.* “We need you to deliver as much of that as possible for less than $8,000.”
ID: *[Not thinking about cost at all.] This is overkill! Creating a giant website to solve this problem is like cooking a stew with prime steak meat. We’ll need to get on the same page in order for me to be an effective partner here. More analysis is needed. To deliver a solution that works, I’ll need to find out more about what his department really wants. Perhaps I can build rapport (a first step to winning the client’s trust) by bringing up reduced project costs.* “I’m excited to be partnering with you on this exciting project. And our training group wants nothing more that to deliver the best solution that fits in your budget. Now, I’ll need gather more data before I can offer specific details, but what if I told you I could offer you the same outcome you want for a mere fraction of the cost of a website?”
PM: “Saving money is good. I’m listening. But what’s the catch?”
ID: “Just spitballing here, but if all you want product adoption, instead of building a costly website, we could simply host a brownbag lunch ‘show and tell’ where we invite nominated nay-sayers from each team within your department to pre-identify their negative perceptions as consumers. Then at the lunch, we resolve their concerns and offer tailored demonstrations on how switching products adds value for their team. We work until all the issues are resolved. Then we let them convert the rest of their teams.”
PM: *Skeptical/Borderline defensive* “We’ve already done all that during the alpha and beta phases of product development—didn’t work. We then tried mass emailing out a role-out announcement ourselves, but only two people in the whole company downloaded the product outside of our team. People just don’t want to change. What we need is something more visually explosive! That’s why we came to you.”
ID: “I can see you believe this website idea is a silver bullet. And I’m happy to build you a website if that’s how I can best be of service to you right now. I’m just not sure a website is the best way for you to get what you want. For me to better help you, we need more data. It seems to me that you have a definite perspective on how the product was rolled out in the past and are invested in its success. *Your very job might be riding on its successful implementation.* But I haven’t heard the perspectives from other stakeholder from within the department. Do you have any survey, focus group, or interview data from stakeholders, especially end users? That information can help us be sure we’re understanding what you really want—”
PM: *’This guy is an friggn’ idiot.’ Staring into your eyes and repeatedly raising and his lowering hands in a chopping motion* “What I really want, is a website.”
ID: [Rolling over.] “Okay. Absolutely. You’re right. My job isn’t to help you get what you really want. It’s to delight my customers. Now, forgive me for trying one last time, but part of the way we’ve delighted customers in the past is by giving them an excellent return on their investment, which I know is also important to you. Now, speaking on behalf of your department, do you really want to sink tons of money into something that isn’t designed to do the thing you’re paying for it to do?”
PM: *[Forcing back an aneurysm.] ‘Oh! Okay, I see our miscommunication now. You believe you’re actually helping by asking me all these questions, when the truth is you’re just getting under my skin. I already have a green light from my higher-ups on the website idea. I’m just a cog in a wheel. It’s my job to get you to agree to the budget we allocated for this project. Ultimately, I can’t hear what you’re saying because I haven’t directly worked with you before, which means I don’t trust you to know what I want, or to save me money. If you give me the run around one more time, we’re contracting someone outside the company to come in and make it happen.’* “…So can you build a website for us?”
ID: *I hate my life.* “Sure.”
A tiny piece of me died while composing that conversation; what a train wreck! Obviously, it was a bit exaggerated. PMs aren’t actually the small-minded demons I made them out to be. (But it can sometimes be perceived that way by IDs. Perhaps later I’ll post the same encounter from a PM’s perspective!)
While the blame for this miserable needs analysis meeting doesn’t rest solely on the ID’s shoulders, the following five techniques are designed to help the ID improve that conversation. After sharing my observations, I’d love to hear any additional feedback, observations, and personal experiences you’d care to share in the comment section.
The first two things you need to know are:
If you want a customer’s business—contrary to rational thought—a successful ID must espouse the old marketing slogan, “the customer is always right.” The following corollary is also true, “An ID is only be “right” when the paying customer thinks it so.” The assumption here is that you want the customer’s business. Some customers are terrible for business, in which case you should politely drop them as clients. However, if you want a particular client’s business, you’re going to have to occasionally leave your expertise at the door and play by their rules. Bottomline: Your expertise will only be valued once trust has been established.
Before trust can be earned, IDs ought to think of themselves as indentured servants to their clients or project managers. Creative freedom is a luxury that is earned, not assumed. Sound like a dreary life? That depends on your perspective. Happy IDs initially derive job satisfaction the same way golf caddies do when working with professional golfers. The same goes for the relationship between medieval squires and their knights. These professions find happiness by making their superiors look good, even when they boldly (and often ignorantly) dismiss the expert counsel given them. This metaphor of sovereign fealty is particularly important for IDs who are working with project managers for the first time. This includes burgeoning ID contractors, as well as experienced, in-house IDs who are new to a company.
Novice IDs, leave your grad school design theories and preconceived notions of establishing a common project goal at the door. Despite it being a best practice, most project managers (those whose job it is to relay messages from their higher ups) do not want your “better way of doing things” bungling their sacred scope, schedule, and/or budget. If you want your project ideas to eventually be heard, having the trust of the sponsoring client means everything. Trust is earned as you consistently deliver projects on scope, on time, and on budget. Bonus points for exceeding expectations in any of those categories. See my previous post illustrating how to build trust with your PM.
Bottomline: The more trust you earn, the more creative control the PM/ClientPOC will relinquish for future projects. Only after customers are convinced that you can make them look good are they willing to be open to your crazy, new ideas from the start of a project.
Like these poor customer service reps, IDs are too often perceived by project managers as potential obstacles or even enemies rather than adoring vassals. It’s your job to change their mind. To prevent the perpetuation of this stigma, IDs ought to establish a culture of service within their team or organization. Here are a few ways an organization can be seen as service-minded by their clients.
Even the most subtle of communications can promote partnership or divisiveness.
While the ID in the “fictional” story above appeared to demonstrate respect for the customer’s needs, he/she unfortunately did it in word alone. The ID would think one thing, then say something completely different. Duplicity is toxic to relationships. Despite your sense of justice and rationale screaming one thing, I promise you’ll be happier if you:
If you’ve observed any of these cancers in yourself, you’ve got to change—either yourself or your environment (i.e., get a new job). Now, I’m not a quitter. But I do advocate it in some circumstances.Some people aren’t at a place in life where they can be performance ponies for their companies. Yes, I just called employees who haven’t yet earned trust broken show horses. Granted, some stallions were dealt a poor hand. Some simply don’t have the skills (yet) to cope in a standard workforce environment. And some horses were born to be wild. I’ve seen enough Millennials struggle in business (and tragic horse films like Buck, and Man from Snowy River) to know—if you can’t be controlled, you get put down. So do yourself a favor, shape up or ship out. If you can’t adapt, don’t stay in a joyless job. Start making moves now to get yourself out of that toxic environment into a place where you can choose to be happy.
Many workers who hop from job-to-job, who search for a place where they “make a difference,” never find it. In many cases, the problem is sadly with them. In many instances, these good folks fail to realize that it takes more that 8 months with a company to start to feel like you are making an impact. Here are some tips that helped me cross that dessert:
Instructional design is a terrific field with tremendous potential to help people and organizations. And like any profession, if you want to achieve greatness, you’ve got to pay your dues. (E.g., Lawyers don’t join firms and immediately become partners.) Freedom and autonomy at work come only after you’ve proven yourself to be a reliable asset to those you serve. During that necessary period of servitude, don’t be an academic know-it-all. Don’t miss the mark by valuing what’s “right” above your relationship with the client. Be service minded. Speak well, act well, and you will do well.
Are you an instructional designer? Are you’re getting stepped on by your project manager (PM) at work? Begin the process of receiving the respect you deserve by developing trust with your PM. Below is an example of a (slightly manipulative) process that instructional designers (IDs) with < 10 years in the field can use to build trust with their project managers:
TL;DR — The more trust you earn, the more creative control the PM/clientPOC will relinquish for future projects. Only after customers are convinced that you can make them look good are they willing to be open to your crazy, new ideas from a project’s inception.
Video Summary: Cloning is all in the planning and post-production. First, you shoot all the “pieces” you need. Then all the pieces are cut using the After Effects pen tool and composite them together using layers. Once the pieces are put together, you make them look pretty and believable by adjusting coloring, and adding camera shake.
Answer by Suresh Rathinam:
I was a very bad Procrastinator for a very long time, until I really understood the basics of why I procrastinate.
In order to understand why you procrastinate, first you should have a strong desire to eliminate procrastination in your life and following the methods mentioned below will be helpful.
I. Track down your everyday activity
When I first started writing down the list of activities that I do everyday, it felt like a waste of time. But later while analyzing the one month data I clearly understood why I don't have enough time to do the necessary activities and it narrowed down to the bad habits that i had created over time.
I was spending most of my time in Facebook and was affected by the "Chain-clicking curse" where watching a video from Facebook will lead to YouTube in-turn to Twitter to see the trend and it goes on and on into loads of unnecessary browsing wasting your precious time
II. Understanding why we procrastinate
We procrastinate because of the habits that we create over time. When we work some random thought strikes our mind, it might be as simple as,
where to go for the next vacation?
and I go to online to check details of it. It doesn't stop there, then to Facebook to see where my friends went and something else catches up my eyes and the clicks goes endlessly.
III. How we create Habits
I have been following this routine every day which let me do overtime to complete my work and had no time for the essential things in life. All of these made sense to me when I read the Power of habit by Charles Duhigg.
Understanding the basic of habit was big help to me. I starts with a cue/Signal in my case it was the random thought and my routine was to search about it and reward that I get is leaving a stressful work for that moment/satisfaction by answering my random thought which sucks my time endlessly leaving only a very short period of time to do the necessary.
Now the trick it to replace the bad routine with a good routine which will lead to greater productivity in life, which could be understood by looking at how runners reward themselves
Here the cue is the Running shoe and it lets you to the routine of running which was created over time, running leads to the reward which is sense of accomplishment on completing a run also satisfying the Endorphin craving that you get by looking at the running shoe
IV. How I cured myself by changing my routine
1. Keeping myself distraction free
a. Turn off internet: Most of my work doesn't need internet so turned off my WiFi whenever i work
b. Note pad: Whenever some random thoughts strike rather than searching it online I started recording them down in a small note and researched about them later
c. Setting Time limits: Started setting a duration to complete my work which helped me to focus more on my work, Even had set time on socializing with my colleagues spending not more than 5 minutes on unnecessary talks
2. Sustaining the habits
a. Tracking your activities: Its quite tough for me to write every activity now and then, so I spent half an hour every day before sleeping to write down the activities of the whole day splitting into hourly activities and do a quick analysis on where to improve next day. It looks something like this:
9:00 – 10:00 : Forecast Meeting
10:00 – 11:00 : Project#1 – Prepared the procedure
b. Prioritizing activities for tomorrow: This summary helps me in prioritizing the activities that i should be concentrating more tomorrow and I write down top 3 things that should be completed tomorrow
c. Monthly and Quarterly Review: then I started analyzing my monthly and quarterly data's to continuously improve my productivity
The methods mentioned above worked perfectly for me and I started finding more time to do the necessary things in life. Hope it will be useful for you as well, Let me know if it was helpful. 🙂
Paul Burton is a practicing attorney in Washington State. He is an expert in the areas of business communication and time management. These are some notes my dad took at a one-hour seminar with him.
In Fall 2013, I took a 4-hour, graduate-level class for 16 weeks at BYU in order to learn what this video demonstrates in 3 minutes…
Moral of the story: Don’t go to college if you have the internet.
Developers make things so complicated! “We don’t want to hear what is or isn’t possible; Just make it happen!” (This is the best project-planning meeting satire, ever.)
What is it about media that captivates people? How should I be using more media (or less media) in my instruction? At what times? For what purposes? Here’s some amazing research I bumped into this week that answers those very questions. The science behind learner engagement, regarding media use, goes all the way back to a Pavlovian concept called, “orienting response.”
Grabbing Your Attention
What is it about TV that has such a hold on us? In part, the attraction seems to spring from our biological “orienting response.” First described by Ivan Pavlov in 1927, the orienting response is our instinctive visual or auditory reaction to any sudden or novel stimulus. It is part of our evolutionary heritage, a built-in sensitivity to movement and potential predatory threats. Typical orienting reactions include dilation of the blood vessels to the brain, slowing of the heart, and constriction of blood vessels to major muscle groups. Alpha waves are blocked for a few seconds before returning to their baseline level, which is determined by the general level of mental arousal. The brain focuses its attention on gathering more information while the rest of the body quiets.
In 1986 Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues began to study whether the simple formal features of television–cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noises–activate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen. By watching how brain waves were affected by formal features, the researchers concluded that these stylistic tricks can indeed trigger involuntary responses and “derive their attentional value through the evolutionary significance of detecting movement…. It is the form, not the content, of television that is unique.”
The orienting response may partly explain common viewer remarks such as: “If a television is on, I just can’t keep my eyes off it,” “I don’t want to watch as much as I do, but I can’t help it,” and “I feel hypnotized when I watch television.” In the years since Reeves and Thorson published their pioneering work, researchers have delved deeper. Annie Lang’s research team at Indiana University has shown that heart rate decreases for four to six seconds after an orienting stimulus. In ads, action sequences and music videos, formal features frequently come at a rate of one per second, thus activating the orienting response continuously.
Lang and her colleagues have also investigated whether formal features affect people’s memory of what they have seen. In one of their studies, participants watched a program and then filled out a score sheet. Increasing the frequency of edits–defined here as a change from one camera angle to another in the same visual scene–improved memory recognition, presumably because it focused attention on the screen. Increasing the frequency of cuts–changes to a new visual scene–had a similar effect but only up to a point. If the number of cuts exceeded 10 in two minutes, recognition dropped off sharply.
Producers of educational television for children have found that formal features can help learning. But increasing
the rate of cuts and edits eventually overloads the brain. Music videos and commercials that use rapid intercutting
of unrelated scenes are designed to hold attention more than they are to convey information. People may
remember the name of the product or band, but the details of the ad itself float in one ear and out the other. The
orienting response is overworked. Viewers still attend to the screen, but they feel tired and worn out, with little
compensating psychological reward. Our ESM findings show much the same thing.
Sometimes the memory of the product is very subtle. Many ads today are deliberately oblique: they have an
engaging story line, but it is hard to tell what they are trying to sell. Afterward you may not remember the product
consciously. Yet advertisers believe that if they have gotten your attention, when you later go to the store you will
feel better or more comfortable with a given product because you have a vague recollection of having heard of it.
The natural attraction to television’s sound and light starts very early in life. Dafna Lemish of Tel Aviv University
has described babies at six to eight weeks attending to television. We have observed slightly older infants who,
when lying on their backs on the floor, crane their necks around 180 degrees to catch what light through yonder
window breaks. This inclination suggests how deeply rooted the orienting response is.
Lessons for educators:
Tips on how to film an engaging interview: